04-Persecution of Press in Sindh: Case Study of Al-Waheed and Watan Newspapers during Political Movements, 1920-22
The purpose of this research was to study the persecution of press in Sindh during the currency of Pan-Indian political movements known as Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements, during 1920-22. In this regard the case study of two popular newspapers, Al-Waheed and Watan, were conducted to understand the mechanism of monitoring and controlling the newspapers in Sindh by the colonial rulers. The study explores the political landscape of Sindh in particular and India in general during those turbulent times as well as examines the state of journalism in the province at that time. With the help of the case study of two popular newspapers, the study highlights the mechanism adopted by the colonial government for monitoring and controlling the press in Sindh. In this regard the archival official records as well as translations of the critical articles published in those newspapers were accessed at the India Office Records (IOR) section of British Library, London. The methodology adopted for the current study mainly comprised historical, analytical and content analysis. The study concludes that the press in Sindh faced severe hardships at the hands of the British government through a coercive mechanism with active involvement and concurrence of all the capitals of Sindh’s governance, i.e. Karachi, Bombay, Delhi and London. The study is first of its kind that highlights the role played and sacrifices rendered by press in Sindh for the freedom of press during colonial rule in 1920-22.